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Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy

Introduction of Philosophy: Paper II

Instructions: Please answer one of the questions below using 975 1000 words. You must answer each part of the question to get full points. Put your name, class & section number and word count in the header. Turn in paper copies at the beginning of class on 10/30/17.

Christian Era:

According to St. Augustine, two types of wills fight in my heart (8.19) and in their struggle tore my soul apart (5.10). What is he talking about here? In your discussion, please tell me the nature of these two wills and their struggle. What reasons does Augustine give to prove these wills exist? Do you agree or disagree? Explain why using a good example.

According to St. Augustine eternity is real, while time is not. In this paper, you will discuss what he means by eternity and whether the proofs he gives about its existence make sense. How does eternity tie into his ideas about the human soul?

Augustine examines three theses about time:

The past and future do not exist. Only now exists.
The movements of the sun and moon and stars themselves constitute time.
Time is a tension of consciousness.

He rejects 1 & 2 and accepts 3. In this paper you will discuss one of the concepts of time he rejects and the one he accepts. After explaining what the thesis means, please give me the reason why he believes these ideas. Do you agree or disagree? Why.

Early Modern Philosophy: (Christianity & Scientific Revolution)

Descartes uses the method of radical doubt to prove that the immortal soul and that God exist. What is this method? How does he use it to either prove the souls or Gods existence? Does he succeed? Why or why not?
Why does Descartes doubt he can tell the difference between dreams, hallucinations and adequate ideas? Do you think he is correct? Why or why not?

The method of doubt leads Descartes to conclude that Cogito Ergo Sum. What does this phrase mean? Why is it important? In this paper you will need to describe the ego cogito and its properties. How can you recognize this thing in yourself and in others?

Please explain why, Descartes needs to prove that God exist to guarantee the existence of reality. He gives us a causal proof of Gods existence in the third mediation and an ontological proof in the fifth. Discuss one of these proofs. Do you agree? Why or why not.

According to Descartes we are minds, or thinking things (res cogitan) in physical bodies (res extensan). What properties do these two different types of things have? How they interact or work together to form a single living thing?

Leibniz Monadology.

What is a monad and what are its properties? Is there a difference between a simple monad, a soul and a spirit? What would a universe (the plenum) completely made of monads be like? Does this theory apply to any part of our universe?

Book: Attached Below.

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